Engineering, Science, Technology, and Social Sciences

Today, the word “scientist” applies to many different types of jobs. People employed in engineering jobs can rightly be called scientists. Professionals in fields like biology, zoology, botany, geology and physics are scientists. Anthropologists, archeologists, sociologists and other social scientists are an important part of science as well. And the technologists, technicians, and researchers who work in these industries are also scientists.

Most jobs in engineering, technology and the sciences require a college degree or other advanced training, although some technician jobs provide on-the-job training and are available without advanced study.

Job Descriptions and Careers, Career and Job Opportunities, Career Search, and Career Choices and Profiles

Aerospace Engineer Job Description, Career as an Aerospace Engineer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Bachelor's degree Salary: Median—$79,100 per year Employment Outlook: Good Aerospace engineers design, develop, and test aircraft, missiles, and space vehicles and oversee their production. They often specialize in one kind of vehicle, such as passenger planes, helicopters, or rockets. In some cases, they also work with earthbound vehicles, such as deep-diving…

5 minute read

Aerospace Engineering and Operations Technician Job Description, Career as an Aerospace Engineering and Operations Technician, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: High school plus two years of training Salary: Median—$52,250 per year Employment Outlook: Good The aerospace industry is based on aeronautics, the science of flight, and on astronautics, the science of space travel. Both aircraft and spacecraft are produced in this industry. Aerospace engineering and operations technicians construct, test, and maintain aircraft and …

5 minute read

Air-Conditioning Engineer Job Description, Career as an Air-Conditioning Engineer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Bachelor's degree Salary: Median—$67,110 per year Employment Outlook: Good Air-conditioning engineers are mechanical engineers who work on systems that cool, heat, purify, circulate, humidify, and dehumidify air. Climate control systems are used in a wide range of indoor areas, from office buildings to tractor-trailer cabs. These systems help people work and l…

4 minute read

Alternative Fuels Vehicle Technician Job Description, Career as an Alternative Fuels Vehicle Technician, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: High school plus training Salary: Median—$38,000 per year Employment Outlook: Very good Alternative fuels vehicles are cars, vans, trucks, and buses that run on fuels other than gasoline or diesel. At present, the two types of alternative fuels vehicles in greatest use are those that run on compressed natural gas (CNG; natural gas under high pressure) and those that …

3 minute read

Anatomist Job Description, Career as an Anatomist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Doctoral degree Salary: Median—$65,110 per year Employment Outlook: Good Anatomists are biological scientists who study the structure of living things. Most anatomists are biomedical researchers and educators focusing on human anatomical form and function. Many specialize in areas such as biological imaging, cell biology, genetics, molecular development, endocrinolog…

5 minute read

Anthropologist Job Description, Career as an Anthropologist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Doctoral degree Salary: Median—$43,890 per year Employment Outlook: Good Anthropologists are social scientists who study the origin and physical, cultural, and social development of human beings. Anthropologists study the language, traditions, beliefs, possessions, and values of people in various parts of the world and formulate hypotheses to explain their research a…

6 minute read

Archaeologist Job Description, Career as a Archaeologist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Master?s degree in archaeology. Salary: Median? $71,551 annually Employment Outlook: Fair The systematic study of past human lives and habitats with the help of material remains is known as archaeology. Individuals who hunt for answers to historical mysteries of the past are referred to as archaeologists. Such professionals are involved in the extensive study of historical …

3 minute read

Artificial Intelligence Specialist Job Description, Career as an Artificial Intelligence Specialist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Master's or doctoral degree Salary: Median—$74,980 per year Employment Outlook: Excellent Artificial intelligence (AI) specialists program computers to "think." Some AI specialists work in cognitive simulation, in which computers are used to test hypotheses about how the human mind works. For example, the AI specialist might develop a computer pr…

3 minute read

Astronomer Job Description, Career as an Astronomer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Doctoral degree Salary: Median—$97,320 per year Employment Outlook: Fair Astronomers are sometimes called astrophysicists. They use the laws of physics and mathematics to learn about the nature of matter and energy throughout the universe, which includes the sun, moon, planets, stars, and galaxies. In addition, astronomers apply their knowledge to solve problems in n…

5 minute read

Astrophysicist Job Description, Career as a Astrophysicist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Advanced degree in astrophysics. Salary: Median? $60,200 annually Employment Outlook: Fair An astronomer studying the physical components of celestial objects is known as an astrophysicist. As an academic subject, astrophysics is an amalgam of physics and astronomy. Astrophysicists study the physics of the universe along with the interactions between various objects of oute…

4 minute read

Aviation Safety Inspector Job Description, Career as a Aviation Safety Inspector, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Training/Educational Requirements: High School Diploma and Experience in the Field Median Salary: $62,000 Job Prospects: Fair Aviation safety inspectors work to ensure the safety of aircrafts, including its parts, processes, and its aircraft operators. They certify operators and mechanics, issue certification, and perform surveillance. They ensure all practices happen within the established rules,…

4 minute read

Biochemist Job Description, Career as a Biochemist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Doctoral degree Salary: Median—$68,950 per year Employment Outlook: Good Biochemists are scientists who study the chemistry of living things. Their work includes studying the complex chemical combinations and reactions involved in metabolism, reproduction, growth, and heredity. Some biochemists do basic research that expands scientific knowledge about the chemistry o…

6 minute read

Biological Technician Job Description, Career as a Biological Technician, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Associate's or bachelor's degree Salary: Median—$15.97 per hour Employment Outlook: Good Biological technicians assist scientists who study living things and their life processes. Like agricultural technicians and medical laboratory technicians, biological technicians work in the life sciences. Their field is biology, which is a very broad life science …

4 minute read

Biologist Job Description, Career as a Biologist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Master's or doctoral degree Salary: Average—$69,908 per year Employment Outlook: Good Biologists study the origin, development, structure, and function of plant and animal life. The word biology comes from the Greek word bios, which means "mode of life." Like medicine and agriculture, biology covers a broad area within the life sciences. Biologis…

6 minute read

Biomedical Engineer Job Description, Career as a Biomedical Engineer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Master's degree Salary: Median—$67,690 per year Employment Outlook: Very good Biomedical engineers combine their knowledge of biology and medicine with engineering principles and practices to develop devices and procedures that solve medical and health-related problems. That is, biomedical engineers try to answer medical challenges by helping design and develo…

4 minute read

Botanist Job Description, Career as a Botanist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Doctoral degree Salary: Average—$62,207 per year Employment Outlook: Good Botanists are biological scientists who study plants. Their field, botany, is very broad. It encompasses the study of more than three hundred thousand species of plants ranging from ground-hugging mosses to giant redwood trees. In addition, there are many different ways to approach the study of…

5 minute read

Cable Television Engineer Job Description, Career as a Cable Television Engineer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: College plus training Salary: Average—$64,416 per year Employment Outlook: Good Cable television engineers design, develop, and maintain wired cable television systems. Their main goal is to establish strong cable reception with minimal interference in a given service area. Some of these engineers introduce methods to improve the operation of existing cable systems a…

4 minute read

Cable Television and Telecommunications Technician Job Description, Career as a Cable Television and Telecommunications Technician, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: High school plus training Salary: Median—$17.36 per hour Employment Outlook: Poor Cable television and telecommunications technicians install, maintain, and upgrade cable systems. They also perform repair work and respond to service problems at the homes of cable users. Their main goal is to keep a cable system operating efficiently. Cable technicians generally start…

5 minute read

Cartographer Job Description, Career as a Cartographer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: College Salary: Varies—see profile Employment Outlook: Good Cartographers are part of a larger occupational group called mapping scientists. They collect geographic information from aerial photographs and survey data and use this information to prepare maps, charts, and drawings of large areas of the earth's surface. Cartographers must be skillful in reading a…

2 minute read

Ceramic Engineer Job Description, Career as a Ceramic Engineer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Bachelor's degree or higher Salary: Median—$67,110 per year Employment Outlook: Good Ceramic engineers are specialized materials engineers who work with ceramics, which are nonmetallic, inorganic materials that are processed at high temperatures. Glass, porcelain, brick, and cement are all examples of ceramics. Ceramic engineers develop new ceramic products as…

5 minute read

Chemical Engineer Job Description, Career as a Chemical Engineer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Bachelor's degree or higher Salary: Median—$76,770 per year Employment Outlook: Good Chemical engineers work in the production of chemicals and many other products that require chemical processing. They use the theories and laws of chemistry to develop industrial chemical processes. They generally build on the findings of research chemists, who work with small…

6 minute read

Chemical Technician Job Description, Career as a Chemical Technician, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: High school plus two years of training Salary: Median—$18.35 per hour Employment Outlook: Fair Chemical technicians assist chemists and chemical engineers who develop, produce, and use chemical products, equipment, and related items. Most chemical technicians work for private companies, especially those that make chemicals, drugs, rubber, and steel. Chemical technici…

4 minute read

Chemist Job Description, Career as a Chemist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Master's or doctoral degree Salary: Median—$56,060 per year Employment Outlook: Fair Chemists are scientists who study the makeup of substances and the changes that they undergo. They often work in teams with other chemists, chemical engineers, and chemical technicians. Chemists work for private companies in a variety of industries. They are employed in plants…

6 minute read

Computer-Aided Design Drafter Job Description, Career as a Computer-Aided Design Drafter, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Postsecondary education in drafting Salary Median: $44,577 per year Employment Outlook: Fair A computer-aided design drafter, or CAD drafter, prepares drawings and relief maps that are used in civil engineering projects, such as the building of bridges; the construction of highways; and the development of flood control projects, pipelines, and water control systems. CAD dra…

2 minute read

Demographer Job Description, Career as a Demographer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Master's or doctoral degree Salary: Average—$53,160 per year Employment Outlook: Good Demographers study the makeup, distribution, and trends of populations. They also make observations about the causes and effects of population changes, such as increases in birth rates or immigration. Demographers collect statistical data, analyze the data to identify any tre…

3 minute read

Directory—Institutions Offering Career Training

The information in this directory was generated from the IPEDS (Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System) database of the U.S. Department of Education. It includes only regionally or nationally accredited institutions offering postsecondary occupational training in engineering, science, technology, and social science. Because college catalogs and directories of colleges and universities are …

102 minute read

Ecologist Job Description, Career as a Ecologist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Undergraduate degree Salary Median: $38,250 per year Employment Outlook: Good Ecologists are scientists who study the close ties between the environment and all living creatures. They examine the effects of industrialization, temperature shifts, pollution, and rainfall. Using knowledge of a variety of scientific disciplines, ecologists may collect, examine, and report infor…

3 minute read

Economist Job Description, Career as an Economist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Master's or doctoral degree Salary: Median—$72,780 per year Employment Outlook: Fair Economists study the ways that society uses limited resources, such as land, water, raw materials, and human labor, to satisfy their needs and wants. They are social scientists who have expert knowledge about systems that produce, distribute, and use goods and services. Econom…

5 minute read

Electrical and Electronics Engineer Job Description, Career as an Electrical and Electronics Engineer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Bachelor's degree or higher Salary: Median—$71,610 to $75,770 per year Employment Outlook: Good Electrical and electronics engineers are concerned with the production and use of electricity. They are members of the largest branch of engineering. The focus of electrical engineers is on the generation and supply of power, and the focus of electronics engineers i…

5 minute read

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Technician Job Description, Career as an Electrical and Electronics Engineering Technician, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: High school plus two years of training Salary: Median—$46,310 per year Employment Outlook: Good Electrical and electronic engineering technicians help design, develop, test, manufacture, and repair electrical and electronic equipment. Electrical components of equipment provide power. Electronic components control the equipment, although many types of equipment still …

5 minute read

Electrical and Electronics Installer and Repairer Job Description, Career as an Electrical and Electronics Installer and Repairer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: High school plus training Salary: $15.54 to $25.86 per hour Employment Outlook: Fair to good Electrical and electronics installers and repairers are sometimes called electronics technicians. As their name suggests, these workers install and repair electrical and electronic equipment. The electrical components of equipment provide power. The electronic components control the…

4 minute read

Electromechanical Engineering Technician Job Description, Career as an Electromechanical Engineering Technician, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: High school plus two years of training Salary: Median—$41,440 per year Employment Outlook: Good Electromechanical engineering technicians work with equipment that uses electric power to operate mechanical controls. Technicians who work on this equipment understand the basic laws of electricity and electronics as well as mechanics. They design, develop, test, and manu…

4 minute read

Electronic Home Entertainment Equipment Installer and Repairer Job Description, Career as an Electronic Home Entertainment Equipment Installer and Repairer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getti

Education and Training: High school Salary: Median—$13.44 per hour Employment Outlook: Poor Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers set up and service televisions and radios, VCR and DVD equipment, video cameras, and stereo components such as CD players. Some technicians also install home theaters, satellite television dishes, home security systems, and intercoms. M…

4 minute read

Energy Conservation Technician Job Description, Career as a Energy Conservation Technician, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Bachelor?s Degree Average Salary: $47,211 Annually Job Outlook: Very Good Energy conservation technicians work in a variety of ways to ensure that the right resources are utilized in the appropriate amounts. Though the job is certainly more involved and broader than just that, at the core that is what this individual works to oversee. They are most commonly involved with HV…

4 minute read

Engineering Technicians Job Description, Career as a Engineering Technicians, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: College Salary: Median? $46,065 Employment Outlook: Good The term ?engineering technician? is used for persons who have a practical understanding of general engineering theories. They are primarily involved in solving technical problems through the use of scientific, mathematical, and engineering theories and principles. Their work is application-oriented, and the job profi…

3 minute read

Engineers Job Description, Career as a Engineers, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: College Salary: Median?$91,345 per year Employment Outlook: Good Engineers are skilled technical professionals who act as a link between design and implementation. They work to develop safe and economical solutions to practical difficulties. Engineers use scientific and mathematical knowledge and create marketable, workable solutions in accordance with the demands of custom…

4 minute read

Entomologist Job Description, Career as an Entomologist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Doctoral degree Salary: Median—$51,200 per year Employment Outlook: Good Entomologists are biological scientists who study insects. There are nearly a million known species of insects, and thousands of new species are discovered every year. Insects make up over three-quarters of all the species of animals. All insects play roles in ecosystems. Some roles are benefici…

5 minute read

Ergonomist Job Description, Career as an Ergonomist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Master's or doctoral degree Salary: $40,000 to $72,000 per year Employment Outlook: Very good Ergonomists, also known as human factors engineers, assist in the design of machines, tools, and other equipment to ensure that they can be used easily and correctly. The widespread use of computers has created a large demand for ergonomists to make office and home computer …

3 minute read

Ethnomusicologist Job Description, Career as a Ethnomusicologist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training Bachelor?s degree Average Salary $40,000 per year Job Outlook Very good Ethnomusicology is the study of cultural and social aspects of music and how it is created, interpreted and enjoyed in different cultures. An ethnomusicologist will often spend years adapting to a lifestyle in Japan, China, or Africa to live amongst the native tribes and observe how music was originated …

5 minute read

Ethnoscientist Job Description, Career as a Ethnoscientist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training Bachelor?s degree in Anthropology or Archeology Average Salary $60,000 a year Job Outlook Not Promising Ethnoscience is the study of the classification of knowledge in a culture. It emerged from a postwar effort to combine anthropology and linguistics. It is used to figure out how non-Western cultures value material possessions and concepts of thinking. An ethnoscientist wil…

4 minute read

Fire Protection Engineer Job Description, Career as a Fire Protection Engineer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Bachelor's degree or higher Salary: Median—$80,000 to$100,000 per year Employment Outlook: Very good Fire protection engineers are experts who save lives and money by preventing fires and reducing the danger when fires do break out. They provide advice that helps people to safely design buildings and products, prevent fires, and extinguish or escape from fires…

4 minute read

Fire Safety Technician Job Description, Career as a Fire Safety Technician, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training Fire marshall certification Average Salary $45,000 per year Job Outlook Fair Fire safety technicians visit various buildings and businesses to look over the floor plan and design and draft a plan for what type of fire safety equipment and escape plan is best for them. They use their knowledge of science, engineering, drafting and design to determine how the building would be…

4 minute read

Forensic Scientist Job Description, Career as a Forensic Scientist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degree Salary: Varies—see profile Employment Outlook: Good Forensic scientists gather and evaluate evidence from the victims, vehicles, and scenes of crimes. They analyze the data scientifically, and their findings may help to convict or prove the innocence of a person accused of a crime. Forensic scientists are sometim…

3 minute read

Genetic Engineering Research Assistant Job Description, Career as a Genetic Engineering Research Assistant, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Bachelor's degree Salary: Median—$15.97 per hour Employment Outlook: Good Genetic engineering research assistants work with research scientists in the development and testing of genetically engineered products. Genetic engineering is the science concerned with the manipulation or modification of genes in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Genetic engineering…

3 minute read

Genetic Engineering Research Scientist Job Description, Career as a Genetic Engineering Research Scientist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Doctoral degree Salary: Median—$65,110 per year Employment Outlook: Very good Genetic engineering research scientists, or biotechnologists, manipulate and modify the genes, or hereditary makeup, of microorganisms, plants, and animals. They are specialists in the field of genetics and conduct research in a broad range of biological sciences including biochemistry, bot…

4 minute read

Geographer Job Description, Career as a Geographer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: College Salary: Median—$58,970 per year Employment Outlook: Fair Geographers are social scientists who study countries, regions, and cities through their economy, social conditions, climate, and topography. Geographers use their findings to solve problems in urban and regional planning, business, and agriculture. While many geographers are involved in environmental p…

3 minute read

Geographic Information Specialist Job Description, Career as a Geographic Information Specialist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training Bachelor?s degree and certification Average Salary $62,000 per year Job Outlook Very good Geographic information specialists work with programs and software to create and update data including socioeconomic and demographic standards, political boundaries, land use and cover, environmental practices, infrastructure comparisons within different boundaries and transportation se…

4 minute read

Geologist Job Description, Career as a Geologist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: College Salary: Median—$68,570 per year Employment Outlook: Fair Geologists are scientists who study the earth's crust to obtain an accurate picture of its structure, history, and composition. There are many practical uses for the science of geology. Geologists' findings are used in construction, in planning environmental protection measures, and in exp…

3 minute read

Geophysicist Job Description, Career as a Geophysicist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: College Salary: Varies—see profile Employment Outlook: Fair Geophysicists study the physical aspects of the earth and its atmosphere and apply scientific principles in order to solve problems. They may also study other planets. Their work has many practical applications. Geophysicists work with architects in earthquake-prone areas. They also examine the effects of th…

3 minute read

Geoscientists Job Description, Career as a Geoscientists, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: College Salary: Median- $72,660 per year Employment Outlook: Good Geoscientists are people who study the composition, structure and other physical aspects of the earth. Some also help to search for natural resources such as petroleum and metals. They analyze the geological past and present of the planet by studying rock compositions on the earth?s crust. Geoscientists work …

3 minute read

Science Getting Into Engineering Technology and Social Science - PLANNING YOUR CAREER, EVALUATE SPECIFIC JOBS, FINDING JOB OPPORTUNITIES, MARKETING YOURSELF, PRESENTING YOURSELF INAN INTERVIEW

Good jobs do not magically appear. Anyone who has been in the job market knows that landing the right job takes planning, preparation, perseverance, and patience. This is true whether you are looking for your first job, reentering the job market, trying to get a new job, or planning a mid-career change. This essay is designed to guide you through the process of finding a job, from helping you defi…

45 minute read

Hardware Engineer Job Description, Career as a Hardware Engineer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Bachelor?s degree in engineering Salary Median: $100,180 per year Employment Outlook: Fair Hardware engineers, also known as computer hardware engineers, are responsible for designing and developing computer hardware, like circuit boards, chips, and systems. These computer specialists conduct research prior to making any hardware, oversee the entire manufacturing process, a…

4 minute read

Heavy Vehicle and Mobile Equipment Service Technicians and Mechanics Job Description, Career as a Heavy Vehicle and Mobile Equipment Service Technicians and Mechanics, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirem

Education and Training: High school and formal training Salary: Median- $18.01 per hour Employment Outlook: Good Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics are responsible for maintaining and repairing different types of heavy and mobile machinery. Their job revolves around carrying out routine checks to ensure the safety, longevity, and performance of vehicles and equipm…

3 minute read

Historian Job Description, Career as a Historian, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Doctoral degree Salary: Median—$44,490 per year Employment Outlook: Fair Historians study events, ideas, institutions, and individuals of the past. They may research and interpret events that occurred in the earliest periods of recorded time or ones that people can remember. Unlike archaeologists, who work chiefly with physical objects, historians rely mostly on writ…

6 minute read

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Technician Job Description, Career as a Hydraulic and Pneumatic Technician, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: High school plus two years of training Salary: $20,000 to $50,000 per year Employment Outlook: Good Hydraulic and pneumatic technicians are sometimes called fluid power technicians, because they maintain and repair equipment and machines that use pressurized fluids to carry power from one place to another. Hydraulic and pneumatic systems are two types of fluid power systems…

4 minute read

Hydrologist Job Description, Career as a Hydrologist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Advanced degree Salary: Median—$61,510 per year Employment Outlook: Excellent Hydrologists examine the physical characteristics, distribution, and circulation of water above and below the earth's surface. They study rainfall and other precipitation, the paths precipitation takes through the soil and rocks underground, and its return to the oceans and air. The …

3 minute read

Industrial Hygienist Job Description, Career as an Industrial Hygienist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Bachelor's degree Salary: Median—$69,103 per year Employment Outlook: Good Industrial hygienists are occupational health and safety specialists concerned with the maintenance of good health among industrial workers. They attempt to prevent occupational diseases among employees and minimize environmental health hazards in the workplace. They are trained to anti…

5 minute read

Industrial Safety and Health Technician Job Description, Career as a Industrial Safety and Health Technician, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training Varies ? see below Average Salary $42,000 per year Job Outlook Good Industrial safety and health technicians work with plant managers and supervisors to make sure their factory equipment is working efficiently and their plant is running safely, efficiently and in compliance with legal health, safety and sanitation codes. They also meet with and interview workers to observe h…

4 minute read

Laser Technician Job Description, Career as a Laser Technician, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training Associate?s degree Average Salary $44,000 a year Job Outlook Very good Due to recent technological advancements, there are plenty of opportunities for careers in laser technology. Laser technicians can work in a variety of fields including aerospace, alternative energy, telecommunications, or even medicine and cosmetic industries. The job of a laser technician is to assemble…

4 minute read

Linguist Job Description, Career as a Linguist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degree Salary: Varies—see profile Employment Outlook: Good Linguists study and explore all aspects of ancient and modern languages. They use scientific techniques to work with meanings, sounds, and origins of spoken and written words. Lexicographers compile definitions into dictionaries. Etymologists study the origin an…

3 minute read

Science Looking Into Engineering Technology and Social Science - THE NATURAL SCIENCES, THE FIELD OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS, SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

The twentieth century was defined by technology. A short list of life-changing technological innovations from the 1900s includes cars, jets, space satellites, radio, television, photocopiers, pacemakers, the Internet, refrigerators, washing machines, cell phones, and digital computers. Imagine working in a field that regularly produces things that most people, once having used them, would not want…

30 minute read

Maintenance and Repair Workers, General Job Description, Career as a Maintenance and Repair Workers, General, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: High School Graduate Salary: Median? $15.34 per hour Employment Outlook: Fair General maintenance and repair workers, as their name suggests, are employed in the repair and maintenance of a variety of items or installations. This ?jack-of-all-trades? position can require workers to repair industrial machinery and household equipment, as well as maintain commercial buildings…

4 minute read

Marine Engineer Job Description, Career as a Marine Engineer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: College Salary: Median—$72,040 per year Employment Outlook: Poor Marine engineers design, operate, maintain, and repair the mechanical systems of ships. Working closely with the architect who designs the ship structure, a marine engineer designs the propulsion, auxiliary power machinery, and other equipment needed to run the ship. Most marine engineers are employed b…

3 minute read

Mathematician Job Description, Career as a Mathematician, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Master's or doctoral degree Salary: Median—$81,240 per year Employment Outlook: Poor Mathematics is the study of the measurement, properties, and relationships of quantities and sets, using numbers and symbols. Mathematicians use tools such as mathematical theory, well-defined procedures called algorithms, and the latest computer technology to solve economic, …

5 minute read

Mechanical Engineer Job Description, Career as a Mechanical Engineer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Bachelor's degree or higher Salary: Median—$66,320 per year Employment Outlook: Good Mechanical engineers work with many kinds of machines that produce, transmit, or use power. They are concerned with mechanisms and methods that convert natural energy sources into practical uses. Mechanical engineers also design tools that other engineers need. They often work…

4 minute read

Mechanical Engineering Technician Job Description, Career as a Mechanical Engineering Technician, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: High school plus two years of training Salary: Median—$43,400 per year Employment Outlook: Good Mechanical engineering technicians assist mechanical engineers and sometimes scientists in all phases of the design, development, production, testing, operation, and maintenance of mechanical equipment, tools, and industrial machinery. Mechanical engineering technology is …

5 minute read

Metallurgical Engineer Job Description, Career as a Metallurgical Engineer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Bachelor's degree or higher Salary: Median—$67,110 per year Employment Outlook: Fair Metallurgical engineers develop ways of processing metals and converting them into useful products. Metallurgy, the science of metals, is one of the materials sciences. Other materials sciences include physical metallurgy, ceramics, and polymer chemistry, or plastics. Metallur…

6 minute read

Metallurgical Technician Job Description, Career as a Metallurgical Technician, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: High school plus two years of training Salary: Median—$43,400 per year Employment Outlook: Fair Metallurgical engineering is a subdivision of materials engineering. "Materials" refers to substances such as metals, ceramics, plastics, semiconductors, and composites that are used in the development of products. Materials engineers are involved in selectin…

4 minute read

Meteorologist Job Description, Career as a Meteorologist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: College Salary: Median—$70,100 per year Employment Outlook: Good Meteorologists, also called atmospheric scientists, study the earth's atmosphere, its physical characteristics and movements, and how these will affect the environment. Many meteorologists work for either the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the armed services. They analyze weat…

3 minute read

Microbiologist Job Description, Career as a Microbiologist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Doctoral degree Salary: Median—$54,840 per year Employment Outlook: Good Microbiologists are biological scientists who study organisms so small that, generally, they can only be seen with a microscope. These microorganisms include bacteria, algae, yeasts, fungi, protozoa, viruses, and other microscopic forms of life. Microbiologists isolate and make cultures of micro…

6 minute read

Microwave Engineer Job Description, Career as a Microwave Engineer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Bachelor's or master's degree Salary: Median—$75,770 per year Employment Outlook: Very good Microwave engineers are electronics engineers who specialize in designing, manufacturing, testing, and installing electronic components and systems used to transmit and receive microwave, or short radio wave, signals. A wide variety of devices use microwave signa…

4 minute read

Naval Architect Job Description, Career as a Naval Architect, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: College Salary: Median—$72,040 per year Employment Outlook: Fair Naval architects are designers of ship structures, hulls, and compartments. They work closely with equipment engineers and shipbuilders to ensure that a ship functions efficiently and that its overall system is sound. Most naval architects work for private shipbuilding companies, but some work for desig…

3 minute read

Nuclear Engineer Job Description, Career as a Nuclear Engineer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degree Salary: Median—$84,880 per year Employment Outlook: Fair Nuclear engineers use their knowledge about nuclear energy to solve engineering problems. Their work allows for the practical application of many discoveries by nuclear physicists and other scientists. Nuclear engineers have knowledge of the processes that …

5 minute read

Nuclear Technician Job Description, Career as a Nuclear Technician, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: High school plus two years of training Salary: Median—$28.46 per hour Employment Outlook: Fair Nuclear technicians work in the field of nuclear energy. Nuclear energy is produced from the splitting of atoms, a process called nuclear fission. Radioactivity is the spontaneous emission of energy and/or high-energy particles from the nuclei of atoms when they are split. …

5 minute read

Optical Engineer Job Description, Career as a Optical Engineer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Bachelor?s Degree Average Salary: $70,000 Annually Job Outlook: Very Good An optical engineer or electro-optical engineer as they are sometimes called is involved with a wide array of responsibilities and tasks. They perform research as necessary so as to be able to perform their specific job appropriately. They plan the development and design of gas and solid state lasers,…

4 minute read

Paleontologist Job Description, Career as a Paleontologist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Master?s degree or doctoral degree in paleontology preferred; for entry levels, bachelor?s degree in geology or earth sciences is mandatory Salary Median: $67,470 per year Employment Outlook: Excellent Paleontologists unearth and study fossils of extinct species of plants and animals. They conduct research on prehistoric life forms and the evolution of plant and animal life…

3 minute read

Pathologist Job Description, Career as a Pathologist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Doctoral degree Salary: Varies—see profile Employment Outlook: Very good Pathologists are biological or medical scientists who study the nature, causes, and effects of disease in plant and animal life. Pathology is a broad field that concentrates on the changes in organs, tissues, and cells that are caused by disease. Pathologists work in hospitals, medical laborator…

9 minute read

Pharmaceutical Technician Job Description, Career as a Pharmaceutical Technician, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: High school plus two years of training Salary: $15.97 to $18.35 per hour Employment Outlook: Very good Pharmaceutical technicians assist scientists in the pharmaceutical industry. They are sometimes called drug technicians. Their jobs vary depending on their employer's needs. Most pharmaceutical technicians work for private companies that make finished drugs, such as…

4 minute read

Photonics Engineer Job Description, Career as a Photonics Engineer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Bachelor's degree or higher Salary: Varies—see profile Employment Outlook: Excellent Photonics engineers work in the design, production, and use of laser and fiber optics technology. The job title comes from the word "photon," which is a unit of light. Photonics is the science of using light to generate energy, detect information, or transmit inf…

4 minute read

Photonics Technician Job Description, Career as a Photonics Technician, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: High school and two years of training Salary: Median—$55,000 per year Employment Outlook: Excellent Photonics technicians are trained in the use of devices and systems associated with fiber optics and lasers, and with their applications. The job title comes from the word "photon," which is a unit of light. Photonics is the science of using light to gene…

5 minute read

Physicist Job Description, Career as a Physicist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Doctoral degree Salary: Median—$87,450 per year Employment Outlook: Fair Physicists are scientists who investigate motion and gravity, the behavior of gases, the structure and behavior of matter, the generation and transfer of energy, and the interaction between matter and energy. They identify basic forces and laws of nature. Theoretical physicists investigate these…

5 minute read

Plastics Engineer Job Description, Career as a Plastics Engineer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Bachelor?s Degree Average Salary: $55,000 Annually Job Outlook: Good A plastics engineer is a rather involved role within the engineering discipline. In this role an individual is often quite involved with product development. They may work independently or as part of an engineering team to accomplish the goals. In a rather simplistic way of putting it, a plastics engineer …

4 minute read

Political Scientist Job Description, Career as a Political Scientist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Master's or doctoral degree Salary: Median—$86,750 per year Employment Outlook: Fair Political scientists are social scientists who study government and politics. They analyze many areas of political behavior, including voting, public opinion, taxation, and public administration. Knowledgeable in different forms of government that have existed throughout histo…

5 minute read

Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairer Job Description, Career as a Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: High school plus two years of training Salary: $13.47 to $21.25 per hour Employment Outlook: Fair to good Precision instrument and equipment repairers, sometimes called instrumentation technicians, help install, repair, and maintain complex instruments. These instruments are varied and include watches and clocks, musical instruments, photographic equipment, and medical equi…

4 minute read

Science Resources—Engineering Technology and Social Science Job Description, Career as a Science Resources—Engineering Technology and Social Science, Salary, Employment

Ace the Technical Interview, 4th ed., Michael Rothstein. New York: Osborne McGraw-Hill, 2000. Advice to Rocket Scientists: A Career Survival Guide to Scientists and Engineers, Jim Longuski. Reston, VA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., 2004. Careers in Engineering, 2nd ed. Geraldine Garner. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003. Careers in Science, 4th ed. Thomas Easton. New York: Mc…

4 minute read

Resources—General Career Information

American Salaries and Wages Survey, 8th ed., Helen S. Fisher. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2005. America's Fastest Growing Jobs: Detailed Information on the 140 Fastest Growing Jobs in Our Economy, 8th ed., Michael Farr. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Publishing, 2004. America's Top 101 Jobs for College Graduates, 6th ed., Michael Farr. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Publishing, 2005. America…

21 minute read

Robotics Engineer Job Description, Career as a Robotics Engineer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Master's or doctoral degree Salary: $50,000 to $60,000 per year Employment Outlook: Very good Robotics engineers work in the science of robotics, or flexible automation. Most robots are "manipulators"—machines devised to function in place of a human. Some robots function as "walking" machines, or teleoperators, using remote control …

4 minute read

Robotics Technician Job Description, Career as a Robotics Technician, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: High school plus two years of training Salary: $30,400 to $50,500 per year Employment Outlook: Excellent Robotics, or flexible automation, is the technology involving the design, maintenance, and use of robots. Robotics technicians work as part of the team that produces robots, which are machines designed to perform tasks in place of a living agent. Most robots are "…

4 minute read

Safety Engineer Job Description, Career as a Safety Engineer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Bachelor's degree Salary: Median—$63,730 per year Employment Outlook: Good Safety engineers are responsible for keeping people free from danger, risk, or injury in the workplace. They develop safety programs to minimize losses due to injuries and property damage. They try to eliminate unsafe practices and conditions in industrial plants, mines, and stores as w…

5 minute read

Science Technicians Job Description, Career as a Science Technicians, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: College Salary: Median? $50,333 per year Employment Outlook: Fair Science technicians play a major role in applying the principles and theories of science and mathematics to solve problems occurring in research and development processes. They are responsible for setting up laboratory equipment and monitoring experiments. Science technicians monitoring manufacturing processe…

3 minute read

Semiconductor Processor Job Description, Career as a Semiconductor Processor, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: High school plus two years of training Salary: Median—$13.85 per hour Employment Outlook: Poor Semiconductor processors, sometimes known as integrated circuit technicians, are production workers who manufacture semiconductors. Semiconductors (also known as integrated circuits, computer chips, and microchips) are tiny electronic systems produced on minute slices of si…

2 minute read

Small Engine Mechanics Job Description, Career as a Small Engine Mechanics, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: High school Salary: Median? $14.90 per hour Employment Outlook: Good Small engine mechanics repair and service various kinds of equipment like motorcycles, motorboats, lawnmowers, portable generators and snowmobiles, as well as go-carts and chainsaws. They take apart engines and check for signs of wear and tear. In addition, they repair or replace defective components. Serv…

3 minute read

Social Scientists, Other Job Description, Career as a Social Scientists, Other, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Advanced Degree Salary: Median? $62,320 per year Employment Outlook: Fair Social scientists study all aspects of society &emdash; past events, human relationships, and human behavior among groups. Through their studies, social scientists analyze societal structure and suggest solutions to problems related to social, business, government and personal issues. The major activi…

4 minute read

Sociologist Job Description, Career as a Sociologist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Doctoral degree Salary: Median—$57,870 per year Employment Outlook: Fair Sociologists are social scientists who study groups of people. These groups range from families and tribes to entire communities and even whole nations. Sociologists analyze ethnic and religious groups and political and business organizations. They also focus on the behavior of group members and…

5 minute read

Systems Engineer Job Description, Career as a Systems Engineer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Bachelor's or master's degree Salary: Mean—$74,140 per year Employment Outlook: Good Systems engineers design and coordinate large and complex projects known as systems. There are many kinds of systems, and although all are large, they vary in their complexity. A system has many parts that all interact extensively with one another. Often small systems c…

6 minute read

Telecommunications Central Office Technician Job Description, Career as a Telecommunications Central Office Technician, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Varies—see profile Salary: Median—$23.96 per hour Employment Outlook: Poor Telecommunications central office technicians keep the complex and sophisticated equipment used in the telecommunications industry working properly. They are in charge of installing, maintaining, and repairing the electronic and electromechanical switching equipment in the central offic…

4 minute read

Telecommunications Consultant Job Description, Career as a Telecommunications Consultant, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: College Salary: Median—$65,130 per year Employment Outlook: Excellent The boom in telecommunications technology has created a strong demand for specialists in the field to help companies choose the telephone, video, and data communications equipment best suited to their needs. Telecommunications consultants, also referred to as telecommunications specialists when emp…

3 minute read

Telecommunications Design Engineer Job Description, Career as a Telecommunications Design Engineer, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Varies—see profile Salary: Median—$50,846 per year Employment Outlook: Fair Telecommunications design engineers solve technical telecommunications problems. Their understanding of telecommunications equipment allows them to analyze quickly where and why service is interrupted. Once these engineers know what the trouble is, repair workers can be sent out to fix…

2 minute read

Telephone Service Technician Job Description, Career as a Telephone Service Technician, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Varies—see profile Salary: Median—$23.96 per hour Employment Outlook: Poor Telephone service technicians are one of the largest groups of telephone company workers. They repair and install telephone lines and small switchboard systems at customers' houses and offices. Working from trucks that carry the equipment they need, these technicians spend much o…

4 minute read

Wireless Communications Technician Job Description, Career as a Wireless Communications Technician, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: High school plus formal training Salary: Average—$45,000 per year Employment Outlook: Good Wireless communications technicians help to build and maintain the infrastructure supporting wireless communications systems. Wireless communications systems encompass two-way radios, cellular phones, beepers, wireless Internet (WiFi) access, hand-held computers, vehicle locati…

3 minute read

Zookeeper Job Description, Career as a Zookeeper, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Associate's degree in animal training management; bachelor's degree in biology or zoology Salary: Median—$14 per hour Employment Outlook: Good Zookeepers take care of some of the largest and smallest creatures in captivity, from African elephants to Amazonian frogs. Depending on the zoological park or aquarium in which they work, keepers may be assigned…

4 minute read

Zoologist Job Description, Career as a Zoologist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job

Education and Training: Doctoral degree Salary: Median—$50,330 per year Employment Outlook: Good Zoologists are biological scientists who study animals. They observe animals both in their natural habitats and in the laboratory in order to learn as much as possible about animal life. Zoologists study the origin and development of animal species, the habits and behavior of animals, and the in…

7 minute read